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Inguinal (groin) hernia: it is made of two sub types: direct and indirect. Both occur in the groin area above the inguinal crease, but they have slightly different origins. Both of these types of hernias can similarly appear as a bulge in the inguinal area. Indirect inguinal hernia follows the pathway that the testicles made during prebirth development. It descends from the abdomen into the scrotum. This pathway normally closes before birth but may remain a possible place for a hernia. Sometimes the hernia sac may protrude into the scrotum. An indirect inguinal hernia may occur at any age. Direct inguinal hernia occurs slightly to the inside of the site of the indirect hernia, in a place where the abdominal wall is naturally slightly thinner. It rarely will protrude into the scrotum. Unlike the indirect hernia, which can occur at any age, the direct hernia tends to occur in the middle-aged and elderly because their abdominal walls weaken as they age.

Femoral hernia: The femoral canal is the path through which the femoral artery, vein, and nerve leave the abdominal cavity to enter the thigh. Although normally a tight space, sometimes it becomes large enough to allow abdominal contents (usually intestine) into the canal. A femoral hernia causes a bulge just below the inguinal crease in roughly the mid-thigh area. Usually occurring in women, femoral hernias are particularly at risk of becoming irreducible and strangulated.

Umbilical hernia: this is often called the navel hernia. These common hernias (10-30%) are often noted at birth as a protrusion at the bellybutton (the umbilicus). This is caused when an opening in the abdominal wall, which normally closes before birth, doesn’t close completely. If small (less than half an inch) this type of hernia usually closes gradually by age 2. Larger hernias and those that do not close by them usually require surgery at age 2-4 years. Even if the area is closed at birth, umbilical hernias can appear later in life because this spot may remain a weaker place in the abdominal wall. Umbilical hernias can appear later in life or in women who are having or have had children.

Incisional hernia: Abdominal surgery causes a flaw in the abdominal wall. This flaw can create an area of weakness where a hernia may develop. This occurs after 2-10% of all abdominal surgeries, although some people are more at risk. Even after surgical repair, incisional hernias may return.

Epigastric hernia: Occurring between the navel and the lower part of the rib cage in the midline of the abdomen, epigastric hernias are composed usually of fatty tissue and rarely contain intestine. Formed in an area of relative weakness of the abdominal wall, these hernias are often painless and unable to be pushed back into the abdomen when first discovered.

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